Proceedings of the Conference:


Ingestion of Lead from Spent Ammunition:
Implications for Wildlife and Humans

Richard T. Watson
Mark Fuller, Mark Pokras and
Grainger Hunt



Lead Proceedings





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Table of Contents

Richard T. Watson and W. Grainger Hunt

Ian Newton


Review of Lead Uptake and Toxicosis in Humans and Wildlife

Understanding Lead Uptake and Effects across Species Lines: A Conservation Medicine Based Approach
Mark A. Pokras and Michelle R. Kneeland

History in Lead and Lead Poisoning in History
Jerome Nriagu

Health Effects of Low Dose Lead Exposure in Adults and Children, and Preventable Risk Posed by the Consumption of Game Meat Harvested with Lead Ammunition
Michael J. Kosnett

Biological and Societal Dimensions of Lead Poisoning in Birds in the USA
Milton Friend, J. Christian Franson, and William L. Anderson

Historical Perspective on the Hazards of Environmental Lead from Ammunition and Fishing Weights in Canada
Anton M. Scheuhammer

Technical Review of the Sources and Implications of Lead Ammunition and Fishing Tackle on Natural Resources
Barnett A. Rattner, J. Christian Franson, Steven R. Sheffield, Chris I. Goddard, Nancy J. Leonard, Douglas Stang, and Paul J. Wingate

Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds in Europe and the Regulations Adopted by Different Countries
Rafael Mateo

A Global Update of Lead Poisoning in Terrestrial Birds from Ammunition Sources
Deborah J. Pain, Ian  J. Fisher, and Vernon G.Thomas

Gunshot Wounds: a Source of Lead in the Environment
Richard K. Stroud and W. Grainger Hunt

Human Exposure to Lead from Ammunition in the Circumpolar North
Lori A. Verbrugge, Sophie G. Wenzel, James E. Berner, and Angela C. Matz


Lead Exposure in Humans from Spent Ammunition

The Importance of Moose, Caribou, Deer and Small Game in the Diets of Alaskans
Kimberly Titus, Terry L. Haynes, and Thomas F. Paragi

Lead Bullet Fragments in Venison from Rifle-Killed Deer:  Potential for Human Dietary Exposure
W. Grainger Hunt, Richard T. Watson, J. Lindsay Oaks, Chris N. Parish, Kurt K. Burnham, Russell L. Tucker, James R. Belthoff, and Garret Hart.

Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Lead Bullet Fragments in Random Venison Packages Donated to the Community Action Food Centers of North Dakota, 2007
William E. Cornatzer, Edward F. Fogarty, and Eric W. Cornatzer

Distribution of Venison to Humanitarian Organizations in the USA and Canada
Dominique Avery and Richard T. Watson

Regulation of Lead-based Ammunition Around the World
Dominique Avery and Richard T. Watson

Hunters and Anglers at Risk of Lead Exposure in the United States
Richard T. Watson and Dominique Avery


Lead Exposure, Sources, and Toxicosis in Wildlife

Lead Isotopes Indicate Lead Shot Exposure in Alaska-Breeding Waterfowl
Angela Matz and Paul Flint

Ingested Shot and Tissue Lead Concentrations  in Mourning Doves
J. Christian Franson, Scott P. Hansen, and John H. Schulz

Acute Lead Toxicosis and Experimental Lead Pellet Ingestion in Mourning Doves
John H. Schulz, Xiaoming Gao, Joshua J. Millspaugh, and Alex J. Bermudez

Causes and Consequences of Ingested Lead Pellets in Chukars
R. Justin Bingham, Randy T. Larsen, John A. Bissonette, and Jerran T. Flinders

Lead Exposure in Wisconsin Birds
Sean M. Strom, Julie A. Langenberg, Nancy K. Businga, and Jasmine K. Batten

A Relationship Between Blood Lead Levels of Common Ravens and the Hunting Season in the Southern Yellowstone Ecosystem
Derek Craighead and Bryan Bedrosian

Lead Ingestion by Scavenging Mammalian Carnivores in the Yellowstone Ecosystem
Tom Rogers, Bryan Bedrosian, Derek Craighead, Howard Quigley, and Kerry Foresman

Potential Sources of Lead Exposure for Bald Eagles: a Retrospective Study
Patrick T. Redig, Donald R. Smith, and Luis Cruz-Martinez

Bald Eagle Lead Poisoning in Winter
Kay Neumann

Blood Lead Levels of Bald and Golden Eagles Sampled During and After Hunting Seasons in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem
Bryan Bedrosian and Derek Craighead

Blood-lead Levels of Fall Migrant Golden Eagles in West-central Montana
Robert Domenech and Heiko Langner

Survey of Lead Toxicosis in Free-ranging Raptors from Central Argentina
Miguel D. Saggese, Agust�n Quaglia, Sergio A. Lambertucci, Mar�a S. Bo, Jos� H. Sarasola, Roberto Pereyra-Lobos and Juan J. Maceda

Risk Assessment of Lead Poisoning in Raptors Caused by Recreational Shooting of Prairie Dogs
Robert M. Stephens, Aran S. Johnson, Regan E. Plumb, Kimberly Dickerson, Mark C. McKinstry, and Stanley H. Anderson

Lead in Griffon and Cinereous Vultures in Central Spain: Correlations Between Clinical Signs and Blood Lead Levels
Julia Rodriguez-Ramos, Valeria Gutierrez, Ursula H�fle, Rafael Mateo, Lidia  Monsalve, Elena Crespo, and Juan Manuel Blanco

Long-Term Effects of Lead Poisoning on Bone Mineralization in Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus
Laura Gangoso, Pedro �lvarez-Lloret, Alejandro Rodr�guez-Navarro, Rafael Mateo, Fernando Hiraldo, and Jos� Antonio Don�zar

Blood-Lead Concentrations in California Condors Released at Pinnacles National Monument, California
James R. Petterson, Kelly J. Sorenson, Court VanTassell, Joe Burnett, Scott Scherbinski, Alacia Welch, and Sayre Flannagan

Blood Chemistry Values of California Condors Exposed to Lead
Molly Church, Karen Rosenthal, Donald R. Smith, Kathryn Parmentier, Ken Aron, and Dale Hoag

Effectiveness of Action to Reduce Exposure of Free-Ranging California Condors in Arizona and Utah to Lead from Spent Ammunition
Rhys E. Green, W. Grainger Hunt, Christopher N. Parish, and Ian Newton

Bullet Fragments in Deer Remains: Implications for Lead Exposure in Scavengers
Grainger Hunt, William Burnham, Chris Parish, Kurt Burnham, Brian Mutch, and J. Lindsay Oaks

Lead Exposure Among a Reintroduced Population of California Condors in Northern Arizona and Southern Utah
Christopher N. Parish, W. Grainger Hunt, Edward Feltes, Ron Sieg, and Kathy Orr

Evidence for the Source of Lead Contamination within the California Condor
John Chesley, Peter Reinthal, Chris Parish, Kathy Sullivan, and Ron Sieg

Lead Intoxication Kinetics in Condors from California
Michael Fry, Kelly Sorenson, Jesse Grantham, Joseph Burnett, Joseph Brandt, and Michaela Koenig

Feather Pb Isotopes Reflect Exposure History and ALAD Inhibition Shows Sub-clinical Toxicity in California Condors
Kathryn Parmentier, Roberto Gwiazda, Joseph Burnett, Kelly Sorenson, Scott Scherbinski, Court VanTassell, Alacia Welch, Michaela Koenig, Joseph Brandt, James Petterson, Jesse Grantham, Robert Risebrough, and Donald Smith

Use of Machine Learning Algorithms to Predict the Incidence of Lead Exposure in Golden Eagles
Erica H. Craig, Tim H. Craig, Falk Huettmann, and Mark R. Fuller

Lead Shot Poisoning in Swans: Sources of Pellets within Whatcom County, WA, USA, and Sumas Prairie, BC, Canada
Michael C. Smith, Michael A. Davison, Cindy M. Schexnider, Laurie Wilson, Jennifer Bohannon, James M. Grassley, Donald K. Kraege, W. Sean Boyd, Barry D. Smith, Martha Jordan, and Christian Grue

Lead Poisoning of Trumpeter Swans in the Pacific Northwest: Can Recovered Shot Pellets Help to Elucidate the Source?
Laurie K. Wilson, Garry Grigg, Randy Forsyth, Monika Tolksdorf, Victoria Bowes, Michael Smith, and Anton Scheuhammer

Lead Objects Ingested by Common Loons in New England
Mark A. Pokras, Michelle R. Kneeland,  Andrew Major, Rose Miconi,and Robert H. Poppenga

Difference Between Blood Lead Level Detection Techniques: Analysis Within and Among Three Techniques and Four Avian Species
Bryan Bedrosian, Chris N. Parish, and Derek Craighead


Remediation of Lead Exposure from Spent Ammunition

Lead Poisoning in White-tailed Sea Eagles: Causes and Approaches to Solutions in Germany
Oliver Krone, Norbert Kenntner, Anna Trinogga, Mirjam Nadjafzadeh, Friederike Scholz, Justine Sulawa, Katrin Totschek, Petra Schuck-Wersig, and Roland Zieschank

Lead Poisoning of Steller�s Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus pelagicus) and White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) Caused by the Ingestion of Lead Bullets and Slugs, in Hokkaido, Japan
Keisuke Saito

Success in Developing Lead-free, Expanding-nose Centerfire Bullets
Vic Oltrogge

Small Game Hunter Attitudes Toward Nontoxic Shot, and Crippling Rates with Nontoxic Shot
John H. Schulz, Ronald A. Reitz, Steven L. Sheriff, Joshua J. Millspaugh, and Paul I. Padding

Impacts of Lead Ammunition on Wildlife, the Environment, and Human Health�a Literature Review and Implications for Minnesota
Molly A. Tranel and Richard O. Kimmel

Policy Considerations for a Mourning Dove Nontoxic Shot Regulation
John H. Schulz, Joshua J. Millspaugh, and Larry D. Vangilder

Voluntary Lead Reduction Efforts Within the Northern Arizona Range of the California Condor
Ron Sieg, Kathy A. Sullivan, and Chris N. Parish

Taking the Lead on Lead: Tejon Ranch�s Experience Switching to Non-Lead Ammunition
Holly J. Hill

The Policy and Legislative Dimensions of Nontoxic Shot and Bullet Use in North America
Vernon G. Thomas 

Commentaries on Research Needs and Remediation of Lead Exposure
from Spent Ammunition in Wildlife and Humans

John Freemuth

Milton Friend

Michael Kosnett

Deborah Pain

Mark Pokras

Anton M. Scheuhammer

Vernon G. Thomas

Lori Verbrugge


Conference Summary

Summary of the Main Findings and Conclusions of the Conference �Ingestion of Spent Lead Ammunition: Implications for Wildlife and Humans�
Ian Newton





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